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Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey download epub

by Bruce Clark


Epub Book: 1485 kb. | Fb2 Book: 1941 kb.

A book about something that happened in the 1920s cannot always be expected to raise acute questions about the world today; the . pacy read, which also explains how the exchanges forged modern Greece and Turkey.

A book about something that happened in the 1920s cannot always be expected to raise acute questions about the world today; the power of this book is the terrifying way that it does. Clark has tracked down nonagenarian Greeks and Turks who remember the pre-exchange world. These reminiscences, plus the story of the exchange, are judiciously intertwined to make for a. Tim Judah The Observer 2006-06-18).

Twice A Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey (also published as Twice A Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey) is a book by Bruce Clark published in 2006 concerning the population exchange between Greece.

Twice A Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey (also published as Twice A Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey) is a book by Bruce Clark published in 2006 concerning the population exchange between Greece and Turkey which took place in the early 1920s, following the Treaty of Lausanne.

Bruce Clark explores a 1920’s treaty that rearranged the populations of Turkey and Greece

Bruce Clark explores a 1920’s treaty that rearranged the populations of Turkey and Greece. The result was the Lausanne Agreement of 1923, which regularized the expulsions of Greek Christians from Turkey and authorized reciprocal expulsions of a smaller number of Muslims from Greece to make room for the refugees. No one asked the opinion of the people affected, of course, though their identities as Greeks and Turks, Christians and Muslims were far less clear-cut than the Lausanne arrangement implied.

In Twice a Stranger Bruce Clark sets out on a journey through Europe and Asia to explore the effects of the Lausanne Treaty (1923) and the compulsory Greek –Turkish population exchange it mandated

In Twice a Stranger Bruce Clark sets out on a journey through Europe and Asia to explore the effects of the Lausanne Treaty (1923) and the compulsory Greek –Turkish population exchange it mandated.

Twice a Stranger book. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Start by marking Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions That Forged Modern Greece and Turkey as Want to Read: Want to Read savin. ant to Read.

He examines how the exchange was negotiated and how people on both sides came to terms with new lands and identities. Politically, the population exchange achieved its planners' goals, but the enormous human suffering left shattered legacies

Clark organized the book in such a way that each chapter of diplomatic history is followed by a chapter drawing on. .

Clark organized the book in such a way that each chapter of diplomatic history is followed by a chapter drawing on memories of the exchanged and their descendants. This structure allows the reader to get a feel for the particular before embarking on another thick historical description. The introduction is a historical narrative that provides the necessary background for the general reader.

Greco-Turkish War, 1921-1922, Population transfers, Population transfers. Harvard University Press. Books for People with Print Disabilities. Internet Archive Books. Uploaded by Lotu Tii on February 2, 2015. SIMILAR ITEMS (based on metadata).

Twice a Stranger is a book that needed to be written, and Bruce Clark has achieved it superbly.

If mass expulsion was already underway, what interest did each party serve in regulating this process by treaty? . Mr. Clark also focused on the present landscape and popular cultures of Greece and Turkey, as influenced by the population exchanges

If mass expulsion was already underway, what interest did each party serve in regulating this process by treaty? For Greece, the Lausanne convention was the means to regulate the massive and otherwise uncontrollable influx of Orthodox Christians from Anatolia. Clark also focused on the present landscape and popular cultures of Greece and Turkey, as influenced by the population exchanges. The trauma and psychological pain of the expulsions have been underestimated, and down-played, by both countries and by the international community.

In the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire following World War I, nearly two million citizens in Turkey and Greece were expelled from homelands. The Lausanne treaty resulted in the deportation of Orthodox Christians from Turkey to Greece and of Muslims from Greece to Turkey. The transfer was hailed as a solution to the problem of minorities who could not coexist. Both governments saw the exchange as a chance to create societies of a single culture. The opinions and feelings of those uprooted from their native soil were never solicited.

In an evocative book, Bruce Clark draws on new archival research in Turkey and Greece as well as interviews with surviving participants to examine this unprecedented exercise in ethnic engineering. He examines how the exchange was negotiated and how people on both sides came to terms with new lands and identities.

Politically, the population exchange achieved its planners' goals, but the enormous human suffering left shattered legacies. It colored relations between Turkey and Greece, and has been invoked as a solution by advocates of ethnic separation from the Balkans to South Asia to the Middle East. This thoughtful book is a timely reminder of the effects of grand policy on ordinary people and of the difficulties for modern nations in contested regions where people still identify strongly with their ethnic or religious community.


Comments: (7)

Kea
This is a pretty even handed treatment of a sad piece of history. The author doesn't try to tug on your heart strings with too much emotion, but it is not just a dry presentation of facts and figures, either. You can feel for the victims of these expulsions.

Instead of trying to apportion blame or engender outrage, the book is able to present the thought process of each side at different steps of this process.

The book tells the stories of the expelled groups from different regions and why the people in power chose to expel them in separate chapters, but manages to weave them together smoothly. The passages flow very well, it was easy to read without feeling overly simplified.
Yadon
This is the best book I have read on the tragic Greek-Turkish "population exchange" of the 1920s. I found the book remarkable for several reasons: One is its organization. Chapters alternate between diplomatic history and human suffering stories, many of them based on interviews with survivors of that era. This has a powerful effect on the reader who sees how people were dying while "diplomats talked." Another is its fairness in discussing the responsibilities of each side. (The official Greek and Turkish positions place all the blame on the other side.) And finally the coverage of the suffering of the Muslims that were sent from Greece to Turkey as part of the "exchange." As the books states on p. 161 "In most cases, the fate of these migrants was not as terrible as that of the Anatolian Christians who fled either in the heat of war, or as a result of forced marches followed by forced embarkations on ships riddled with disease; but the Muslim exodus was bad enough."

I have a special interest in the history of the region because both of my parents were born in Turkey and their families ended up in Greece as part of the exchange. My mother's family had to flee with a few hours notice following the retreating Greek army so they would not be slaughtered by Turkish irregulars. My father's family were Cappadocian Turkish speaking Christians. While their departure was more orderly they found themselves strangers in their new country. About 10 years or so ago I met a young Turkish college student who had a summer job in a hotel. He spoke some Greek and I asked him how he learned it. He told me his grandparents were Greek speaking Muslims from Crete and he described the difficulties they had in adjusting in Turkey, a story that mirrored exactly that of my father's family. I also realized that his grandparents must have had fond memories of Greece to teach their grandson the language. For what it is worth, what Clark describes seems to fit exactly my personal experience and my family's oral history.

The final chapter of the book, "The price of success", is particularly noteworthy and I would recommend it even to those who have no special interest in Greece or Turkey. Clark points out that in a way the "exchange" was a success, despite its huge human cost. It allowed Greece and Turkey to become nation states that lived more or less peacefully side by side because of "good fences." But then he goes on to show that such fences are not viable and the linking of religion and ethnicity is a dangerous policy. In the case of Greece and Turkey a new conflict arose because of Cyprus and the two countries came close to war again. Finally, he shows how futile is trying to maintain ethnic and religious homogeneity in the modern era of globalization and extensive labor migration.

It sad to see today that ethnic cleansing (based on one's religion) continues whether in the former Yugoslavia or in Iraq.
Fegelv
I found the first and the last chapters the most rewarding in appreciating the problems and solutions of population exchanges based on religion or any other criterion. The chapters in between present details of the exchange both from the administrative and the persons involved points of view in this forced relocation. An interesting concept in nation building, I find the concept of religious "purity" a very difficult one to overcome in building cooperation and coexistence in the future.
An easy book to read and to enjoy the presentation of the underlying concepts in a sensitive and thought provoking manner.
Nilabor
The problems that were created by zealous 19th century European nationalism are no less damaging today than 100 years hence. The poisonous notion of one majority, exclusive or favored ethnos per state continues to be played out. It has become acceptable and it is now considered "civilized" that differing religious, linguistic, tribal, or cultural groups be segregated and minorities relocated. This is the great shame of our era. Stirring up ethnic and religious passions is ever the lever for cheap civil and religious politicians to gain and maintain power. Whether it's Islamist or Zionist, National Fascist or Soviet Republic the result is the same and the agenda belongs to the autocrats and their aligned oligarchies.

The "two-state" solutions that are ever proposed in the name of peace always are accompanied by human suffering and forced or economic population re-locations. The victims only get to vote with their feet, if they are fortunate enough to survive.

TWICE A STRANGER illustrates not the first but perhaps the most unfortunate of the mutual ethnic cleansings of the twentieth century. I say most unfortunate not because others were less barbaric or less debilitating, but because Greek-Turkish population exchanging has legitimatized the concept and it was agreed to by the world powers. It set a devastating precedent.

TWICE A STRANGER obliquely illustrates what we lost when the leaders of these "nations" set out to homogenize and segregate the cultures of their co-religionists. Local custom, craft, and dialect even charming ambiguities fell victim to the schemes of the nation builder politicians. There was left small room for natural diversity. Even today, the Greek Orthodox label themselves the "homogenis" or "same race" while ostensibly adhering to a faith that recognizes "neither Jew nor Hellene" within their ranks. (Gal. 3:28) Islamic fundamentalism is flourishing in the erstwhile secular state of (some of) the Turks.
Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey download epub
Middle East
Author: Bruce Clark
ISBN: 0674032225
Category: History
Subcategory: Middle East
Language: English
Publisher: Harvard University Press (May 15, 2009)
Pages: 304 pages