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Africa and the Victorians: The Climax of Imperialism download epub

by Ronald Robinson,John Gallagher,Alice Denny

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Book by Ronald Robinson, John Gallagher, Alice Denny. Many readers of AFRICA AND THE VICTORIANS have tended to view the book as little more than a textbook-like chronology of the British scramble for Africa

Book by Ronald Robinson, John Gallagher, Alice Denny. Many readers of AFRICA AND THE VICTORIANS have tended to view the book as little more than a textbook-like chronology of the British scramble for Africa.

Home Browse Books Book details, Africa and the Victorians: The Climax o. .This book has been written as a contribution to the general theory of imperialism. We have not tried to write a history of the regions of Africa during the nineteenth century.Africa and the Victorians: The Climax of Imperialism in the Dark Continent. By Ronald Robinson, John Gallagher, Alice Denny. The morality of the conquest is not here our concern. Its effects in the long run are not our theme.

Robinson, Ronald and Gallagher, John, with Denny, Alice, Africa and the Victorians.

By Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, with Alice Denny. Africa and the Victorians: the official mind of imperialism. Pp. 491. London: Macmillan. By Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, with Alice Denny.

Ronald Robinson, John Gallagher, Alice Denny. Imperialism in the eyes of the world is still Europe's original sin, even though the empires themselves have long since disappeared. Among the most egregious of imperial acts was Victorian Britain's seemingly random partition of Africa.

Bibliographic Details  . Books may be returned for refund of purchase price within seven days provided prior notification is given and the books are returned in the same condition as when shipped.

Bibliographic Details Publisher: St. Martins Press, New York. Publication Date: 1961. Our business details: Resource Books, LLC PO Box 942 East Granby, CT 06026 tami. com 860-658-1191 Authorized representative: Tami Zawistowski.

Автор: Robinson Ronald Название: Africa and the Victorians ISBN: 1780768575 ISBN-13(EAN) . This book looks at the men and their leaders from a variety of angles, using particular incidents and battles to show how the army lived and fought.

Описание: Imperialism in the eyes of the world is still Europe's original sin, even though the empires themselves have long since disappeared. ООО "Логосфера " Тел:+7(495) 980-12-10 ww. ogobook.

by Ronald Edward Robinson, Alice Denny, John Andrew Gallagher.

Published for the American Museum of Natural History Natural History Press, 1964 Africa and the Victorians the climax of imperialism in the Dark Continent. New York, St. Martins Press, 1961 Africa counts : number and pattern in African culture, Claudia Zaslavsky with an introduction by John Henrik Clarke. Books, 1981 New York : Penguin African calliope : a journey to the Sudan, Edward Hoagland Jean Paul Tremblay].

A study on the original motive of imperialism. The authors argue that "the generative force of imperial expansion was primarily political, strategic, and defensive rather than economic, exploitative, and aggressive.". Subtitled "The Climax of Imperialism in the Dark Continent." Fold out maps.

Comments: (5)

The Sinners from Mitar
This is the classic book on the British annexation of Africa and although dated still provides some of the best analysis. The book explores the reasons for the partitions of Africa and the course of empire there. It primarily focuses on the last 30 years but does cover the build up to that point. From Cecil Rhodes to the French in Sudan all the crises are explored. The one hard part with this book is that there is little explanation of the British home situation. You are told that Ireland is the focus at times and the various governments but no detail is spared about those governments so to truly appreciate it you need a good background in British politics. Nonetheless if you are trying to understand how Africa developed into what it is today or the course of British Empire there this is an essential book to read.
This book will lead you to surprising conclusions about imperialism in Africa. The most amazing part is the British reluctance to take part in the classical imperialist model and focus instead on the proliferation of free trade. In the end fervent African nationalism forced a course of classical imperialism that provoked events like the Boer War. These were generally very reluctantly entered into and the British public back home had little stomach for these conflicts. When exploring them the reader may find the Oxford History of the British Empire a useful companion to fill in more details on various events.
The Victorians had an expansive spirit. Most people believed in restricted government and free trade. Expansion seemed inevitable. The main engine of expansion was enterprise. Their trade associations were mostly with Europeans transplanted abroad.
The idea of Africa moved British statesmen to act. The continuity of Victorian leadership ws remarkable. The ends of Livingston and Gordon haunted the imagination as examples of embattled humanitarians. A policy of supporting trade was embraced in the middle of the nineteenth century under the belief that private enterprise could promote the interests of both commerce and philanthropy. On the continent, though, time-honored practices were upset by the presence of Europeans. There was a gulf between intention and effect.
Up until the 1880's the British sought influence but no commitment on both coasts of Africa. In the west there were local chiefs and Liverpool traders in palm oil. In the east the British worked through the Sultan of Zanzibar. In the east the Arabs were useful allies. There was a conflict of interest since the British sought to extinguish all external and internal slave trading. The search for pliant native powers had resulted in one failure after another in promoting civilized activity and suppressing the slave trade in the interior.
The British sought to devolve authority to make imperialism cheaper. The problem was that receptive African rulers were not strong and strong African rulers were not receptive to British influence. The Khedive of Egypt was broken by the expansion of the European economy. The Sultanate in Zanzibar was weakened by being made to enforce an alien athic.
South African politics changed with the discovery of diamonds. The continuity between mid and late Victorian policy is impressive. A forward policy raised strong criticism of Britain. In 1881 the Transvaal crisis was patched up. Next came the Suez crisis. Twenty years after Egypt was opened to free trade, the Khedive, living from loan to loan, was replaced by another and placed under strict controls by Britain and by France. The foreign controllers were practically dictators in finance.
Occupation of Egypt was undertaken by Britain between 1882 and 1914. The British sought to leave Egypt, but the need for administration continued. The Egyptian affair had started the Scramble and ended the stand still arrangement. The Egyptian occupation destroyed the old informal systems on the coasts of Aftica and unsettled the politics of south Africa.
There was a pattern of colonial demands for imperial extension and British resistance to it. The British wished to avoid arousing Afrikaner opinion. Britain became powerless to shut Germany out of south and east Africa because it relied on Germany in its stand-off with France over Egypt. It was determined to occupy Bechuanaland to dissipate the fear of German encroachment.
After 1887 an inrush of mining and railway enterprise changed the shape of politics in south Africa. By 1894 the gold of Johannesburg was believed to be inexhaustable. There were humanitarian advocates of the colonial office set against the need to placate Boer interests. The new wealth and traffic of the Rand made it inevitable that Kruger would seek a railroad link through Portuguese territory for shipment of Transvaal gold.
Cecil Rhodes sought imperial protection for his mining speculations. The company would plant a colony to occupy the country. Throughout 1889 humanitarian societies agitated against giving administrative authority to a commercial company. The government granted the charter fearing nationalism and republicanism in south Africa. The terms of the charter left little room for effective imperial control. Salisbury negotiated with German and Portuguese interests to obtain for Rhodes areas north of Zambesi. Economic imperialism is too simple a term to cover the mixed intentions of the British government. The company was chartered above all as a political instrument.
From 1885 to 1900 British foreign policy was built on the designs of Lord Salisbury. It acquired a brilliance of formulation. He suffered from a fundamental defeatism. He had a static view of politics.
Africa remained for him an intellectual problem. Baring, the British agent in Egypt, felt there could be no stability without the supervision of British officals and the presence of troops. He felt Egypt did not have suitable political cadres. The safety of the Nile became a supreme consideration. In 1889 when it was suggested to the Germans that the matter of Zanzibar be submitted to arbitration, the stage was set for the 1890's agreements. The Anglo-German agreement was badly received by France
Prolonged negotiations about west Africa with France created difficulties. England focused on the Niger River. England eventually invaded Sudan when conditions were suitable for victory there and ultimately fought the Boers to consolidate the holdings and colonies in the south of Africa and to bring everything under imperial control. In the end there was Joseph Chamberlain in the foreign office who wanted to undertake scientific administration of the imperial entities. At that point Salisbury was old and failing.
Victorians were confronted with nationalist upsurges. During the first three quarters of the nineteenth century Britain enjoyed effortless supremacy. The book is of immense interest. Tables are included quantifying the scope of trade, geographical issues and the shifts in European control.
A description of the U.S. invasion of Iraq might start with 9/11, Bush's Administration, the 1991 war, or Iraq's invasion of Iran. The history of the invasion, however, is not a description of the invasion itself but of what happened before. Robinson, Gallagher, and Denny provide that history.

"Africa and the Victorians" describes the UK's responses to fear of erosion of the British Empire. In the mid-1800s, British leaders assumed that modernization of the world economy would naturally strengthen the empire. Events of the late 1800s didn't work out that way. Rather, political developments outside Europe took a nationalist turn. In addition, the expanding world roles of Russia, Germany, and the U.S. threatened to cost the UK its global preponderance, unless the UK could count on all its traditional assets, especially India.

India was securely in British control internally, but the routes of British access to India ran through the Mediterranean, Egypt and, after 1869, the Suez Canal, or alternatively around South Africa. Nationalist politics in both Egypt and South Africa seemed, to British imperialist eyes, to make both routes less secure. In addition, both Germany and Russia were chipping away at Turkey and thus approaching the Suez Canal.

Thus, in 1882 Britain sent its armies to take over Egypt and safeguard the Canal. Many in London wanted to do this on the cheap by quickly withdrawing and then ruling through Egyptian elites, but the old India hands had their way and the UK undertook direct rule and military occupation.

Although it technically falls in Asia and thus outside the book's African focus, the story continued a few years later on the other side of Suez, with the fall of Turkey and Britain's annexation of the lands that lay on Russia's path to the Canal. Both in South Africa and Suez, Britain entrusted territorial defense to colonists -- Britons in the Cape Colony and Israelis east of Suez.

British troops stayed in Egypt until 1954, at which point the Egyptian politics of 1882 replayed themselves almost exactly. Britain and Israel, along with France, invaded again in 1956 to reoccupy the Canal, but by then the shift in world power already feared in the late 1880s had come to pass, and the invaders were ordered out of Egypt by the U.S. and the USSR. By that time, the U.S. had assumed the UK's role as guarantor of Turkey, Israel, and Suez.

The invasion of 2003 repeats this pattern in terms of taking a supposed overseas interest, perceiving an indirect threat to it, invading to overthrow a nationalist government, and then staying supposedly to develop the country but more practically because the invader looks down on the local political alternatives. The U.S. invaders don't seem shy about potentially repeating Britain's experience of a 72-year-long military presence.

Access to India was, of course, no longer an issue even in 1956, but once started these things take on lives of their own.

In their last pages, Robinson, Gallagher, and Denny make this observation: "Fundamentally, the official calculations of policy behind imperial expansion in Africa were inspired by a hardening of arteries and a hardening of hearts. Over and over again, they show an obsession with security, a fixation on safeguarding the routes to the East. What stands out in that policy is its pessimism. It reflects a traumatic reaction from the hopes of mid-century; a resignation to a bleaker present; a defeatist gloss on the old texts of expansion." This also describes U.S. policy toward the world as of 2003, compared to the Marshall Plan days fifty years earlier.

Note that this book has apparently been published under two subtitles: "The Climax of Imperialism in the Dark Continent" (U.S.) and "The Official Mind of Imperialism" (UK).
Africa and the Victorians: The Climax of Imperialism download epub
Author: Ronald Robinson,John Gallagher,Alice Denny
ISBN: 0333018338
Category: No category
Language: English
Publisher: St Martin's Press; First Edition edition (1961)
Pages: 504 pages