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The New Organon and Related Writings (Library of Liberal Arts, no. 97) download epub

by Francis Bacon,Fulton H. Anderson


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Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was a Christian lawyer who made his mark on history by writing the "Great Instauration" . One highlight of Francis Bacon's book is that it focused heavily on emphasizing the use of science to benefit humanity - power.

Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was a Christian lawyer who made his mark on history by writing the "Great Instauration" which included "the New Organon". He was at the forefront at the time of the Scientific Revolution. The New Organon" (1620) and the rest of the "Great Instauration" was to be one of his last contributions and it was to be one of his greatest critiques of knowledge at the time aside from his other works such as "The Advancement on Learning" and others found in Francis Bacon: The Major Works (Oxford World's Classics).

6 Highly Influenced Citations.

oceedings{Bacon1960TheNO, title {The New Organon and Related Writings}, author {Francis Bacon and F. G. Hartnell Anderson}, year {1960} }. Francis Bacon, F. Hartnell Anderson. 6 Highly Influenced Citations. The Allen Institute for AIProudly built by AI2 with the help of our.

Similar books and articles. The New Organon and Related Writings. Francis Bacon - 1960 - New York: Liberal Arts Press. The Religious Foundations of Francis Bacon's Thought. Stephen A. McKnight - 2006 - University of Missouri Press. Francis Bacon: The New Organon. La philosophie mathématique de Giordano Bruno.

The New Organon and R. .Bacon has been called Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, QC, was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. Francis Bacon's philosophy is displayed in the vast and varied writings he left, which might be divided in three great branches: Scientific works – in which his ideas for an universal reform of knowledge into scientific methodology and the improvement of mankind's state using the Scientific method are presented.

Are you sure you want to remove The New organon, and related writings. The Library of liberal arts,, no. 97. Classifications. 112. Library of Congress. from your list? The New organon, and related writings. Published 1960 by Liberal Arts Press in New York. E5 A5. The Physical Object. 292 p. Number of pages.

The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum, sive indicia vera de Interpretatione Naturae ( New organon, or true directions concerning the interpretation of nature ), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620

The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum, sive indicia vera de Interpretatione Naturae ( New organon, or true directions concerning the interpretation of nature ), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620. Bacon was born January 22, 1561, at York House off the Strand, London, the younger of the two sons of the lord keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, by his second marriage. Nicholas Bacon, born in comparatively humble circumstances, had risen to become lord keeper of the great seal.

It challenged the entire edifice of the philosophy and learning of Bacon's time, and left its mark on all subsequent discussions of scientific method. This volume presents a new translation of the text into modern English by Michael Silverthorne, together with an introduction by Lisa Jardine that sets the work in the context of Bacon's scientific and philosophical activities.

Bacon, . ‘Aphorisms – Book One’, in The New Organon and Related Writings, ed. by F. H. Anderson (New York: Macmillan/Library of Liberal Arts, 1987). Bauer, L. and Matis, . Geburt der Neuzeit. Vom Feudalsystem zur Marktgesellschaft (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1988). Bayertz, . ‘Über Begriff und Problem der wissenschaftlichen Revolution’, in Bayertz, K. (e., hte und wissenschaftliche Revolution (Hürth-Efferen: Pahl-Rugenstein, 1981), pp. 11-28.

Political leadership Leadership rhetoric Francis Bacon. In F. Bacon (E., The new organon and related writings. New York: Library of Liberal Arts. A selection of his works.

New Organon and Related Writings (Library of Liberal Arts Series). Coauthors & Alternates. ISBN 9780672602894 (978-0-672-60289-4) Softcover, Bobbs-Merrill Publishing Company, 1960. Find signed collectible books: 'New Organon and Related Writings (Library of Liberal Arts Series)'.

This edition is a reprint of the standard translation of James Spedding, Robert Leslie Ellis and Douglas Denon Heath in The Works (Vol. VIII), published in Boston by Taggard and Thompson in 1863. All bracketed statements are additions of the editor.In addition to some minor stylistic changes, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization have been revised to conform to current American usage.Contents:The Great InstaurationProemEpistle DedicatoryPrefaceThe Plan of the Great InstaurationThe New OrganonAuthor's PrefaceAphorisms Book OneAphorisms Book TwoPreparative Toward a Natural and Experimental HistoryDescription of a Natural and Experimental HistoryCatalogue of Particular Histories by Titles.

Comments: (5)

Yainai
It is unfortunate that is hard to find an English translation of the New Organon in paperback. Originally written in Latin, the New Organon provides Francis Bacon’s vision of a new birth for the sciences. While certainly dated in parts, other parts are refreshingly relevant and the book as a whole makes for an engaging read.

Bacon was educated in the Oxbridge tradition of scholastic Aristotelianism. Disgusted by endless debates over interpretation and definitions, Bacon set out to direct the human mind on a different course. Being well versed in the Aristotelian tradition, Bacon’s criticisms of the academy of his time are especially trenchant and could even be employed against contemporary Peripatetics.

But there is so much more to Bacon than mere criticism. In the first part of this work, he describes various idols of the mind which have impeded human knowledge. Many of these idols, such as that of the tribe or that of the marketplace, are still with us today. Not content with freeing the mind from scholastic shackles and human fallibility, Bacon then sets forth his own plan for science.

It must be admitted that this part of the book, an exposition of Baconian science with heat as the example, shows that Baconian philosophy was a creature of its time. I would argue Bacon is still too strongly influenced by Aristotle in seeking the forms of nature as the goal of science. But he did grasp the need for experimentation, the power of inductive investigations and the need to test theories in the real world. If his lists of examples of heat or its absence seem tiresome, be thankful that you have the vantage point of twenty-first century science with which to critique him.

The New Organon then is not only interesting to historians of science but is a perennially interesting philosophical work. Uniquely placed as one thoroughly trained in Aristotelian philosophy but setting out largely on his own, Bacon is worth encountering. If intellectuals paid as much attention to idols of the mind and critiqued their respective traditions to the extent Bacon did, there would be less strife between different schools of thought and, just possibly, a more civil discourse of ideas in the public square.
Minha
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was a Christian lawyer who made his mark on history by writing the "Great Instauration" which included "the New Organon". He was at the forefront at the time of the Scientific Revolution.

"The New Organon" (1620) and the rest of the "Great Instauration" was to be one of his last contributions and it was to be one of his greatest critiques of knowledge at the time aside from his other works such as "The Advancement on Learning" and others found in Francis Bacon: The Major Works (Oxford World's Classics). The knowledge that he was critiquing was the knowledge of nature, aka "Natural Philosophy". "Natural Philosophy" was the common term for what we call "Science" today up to the 19th and part of the 20th century and the word "Science" comes from the Latin word "scientia" which literally means "knowledge".

"The New Organon" is the work on the modern "Scientific Method" and its variants. Its major contribution to science was inductive reasoning, which resonates through science today. After the publication, knowledge of nature was to be formally derived from experiences of the senses via systematic experiments, and systematic elimination of alternative explanations. Francis Bacon mainly pushed for a more systematic and focused way of generating and securing knowledge - including knowledge from nature. According to Francis Bacon, studying nature and natural phenomenon also was a way fulfilling God's purpose in man and nature - to discover and increase in knowledge, or as he called it, "The Divine Providence". See The Religious Foundations of Francis Bacon's Thought (ERIC VOEGELIN INST SERIES) for more on his inspiration for his writings.

However, this does not mean that natural philosophers before Francis Bacon were doing their science without inductive reasoning. Robert Grosseteste (1175-1253) and numerous other medieval players in the 1200s had already formed the a scientific method and a framework centuries before (see Robert Grosseteste and Origins of Experimental Science, 1100-1700). Roger Bacon (1214-1292) wrote Opus Majus of Roger Bacon, Part 1 and Part 2 which had experimental methodology. Well before this we have a few glimpses through the works of Isidore of Seville and Galen and also the original 'organon' of Aristotle.

Of course, it was Willam Whewell in the 19th century who helped developed today's concept of science, coined the term "scientist" in 1834, and pushed for Baconian induction at the center of science in his famous work The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences: Founded Upon Their History, Vol. 1 of 2 (Classic Reprint) and Vol. 2 (1840).

Francis Bacon's "New Organon" was to replace Aristotle's 'organon', which was made up of a few of his works in Logic, especially Aristotle's "scientific method" in his work called "Posterior Analytics". There are many similarities between both Organons. One highlight of Francis Bacon's book is that it focused heavily on emphasizing the use of science to benefit humanity - power. For further research on excellent scientific advancements through time from Ancient to Medieval times please read some primary documents found here: A Sourcebook in Medieval Science (Source Books in the History of the Sciences) and The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook and Greek Science of the Hellenistic Era: A Sourcebook.

The book includes his vision for the structure of the "Great Instauration", "the New Organon", "Description of a Natural and Experimental History" and "Catalogue of Particular Histories by Title". The eloquent 1863 translation brings out Bacon's original voice with the power and the fury of the philosophers and the Christian rationalists.

The New Organon is divided into two books. Here is a summary of what you will find in Bacon's work on the "Scientific Method' and its variants:

Book 1 (Basically, Critiques of Knowledge):

Critiques of letting pure reason be the guide to acquiring knowledge of nature and redirecting to letting nature be the guide to interpreting nature; consider more than just anticipations in nature; the 4 Idols of understanding that give men false understanding, error, speculation: Idols of the Tribe, Cave, Marketplace, and Theatre (XXXIX-LXII); critique of Aristotle's manipulation of nature to suit his philosophy and lack of experimentation; full blown critiques of problems in the 3 classes of Rational Schools of Philosophy: Sophistry [dependence on wit] , Empirical [big claims, little evidence, dogmas], Superstitious [mixing weird theology and philosophy] (LXII-LXV); making a science of the Book of Genesis [in context of his time, Bacon saw this as useless because there was no way to verify the origins of the universe or archaeology to validate stories in Genesis] (LXV); seeing God's creation of light in Genesis as a lens on how to enlighten and buffer the sciences via conducting 2 types of experimentation : Experimentation of Light and Fruit (LXX); things that distracted men from focusing on natural philosophy; benefits of discovery; bad memories of few tensions between natural philosophy and religion, and Bacon's defense of compatibility between natural philosophy and religion (LXXIX); science being hindered the greatest by men thinking things impossible [plea for optimism in science for sake of discovery using Columbus as an example] (XCII); applying mathematics to nature; increasing natural knowledge fulfills Biblical prophecy from the Book of Daniel [Divine Providence] (XCIII); building axioms upon axioms as way of increasing knowledge of nature; examples of benefits of discovery in terms of technology for humanity (CX); applying the Scientific Method on politics, ethics, memory, etc. (CXXVII); comparative analysis; emphasis on history to further knowledge of nature and more.

Book 2 (Basically, Controlled experiments and examples of applications of his methods of induction in analysis of information):

Types of systematic inquiry for interpretation of nature; investigating the nature of a spirit (VII); 2 kinds of axioms: Metaphysical and Physical (IX); experiments from axioms and axioms from experience; comparative tables of instances with similar, dissimilar, and missing natures; short procedures to try on these natures and things with similar and dissimilar natures to compare quality of substances; 27 Prerogative Instances that aid in interpreting nature carefully and correctly [divided into 2 parts: Operational aspects of science and Informational aspects of science]; with examples and wanderings of inquiry from Bacon on the nature of magnets, light, liquids, heat, and so on.

Overall, this is truly one of the greatest accomplishments in the realm of inquiries of nature. Modern scientists and engineers can learn a lot from this work in terms of how to be humble and reasonable via experiments which are, in turn, based on experience via the senses and in the case of history, on the testimony of historians and people form the past. Bacon's optimism for the future of studies in nature (science) are a major highlight of the book for he was very prudent and had a futuristic vision of discovery. Bacon's naturalism, like most scientists in his time and even today, is not a metaphysical naturalism, but is instead a physical naturalism where his belief in God, the Bible, and nature are not in conflict, but are instead complementary. He desires for naturalists to be cautionary when interpreting both the Book of Nature and the Book of God. Science is more than just direct physical evidence, in fact science is a metaphysical enterprise - knowledge and certainty. Science includes indirect evidence, methods, explanations, speculations, reasoning, interpretation, curiosity, inference, etc. But, ultimately, searching for consistency of ideas in hopes of reflecting nature's tendencies as best as possible is the main goal in science. It is an attempt to simulate reality from using our minds and gathering information from nature just as we do when we smell organic compounds such as food or when we look at effects of heat on a candle.

For further reading on the nature of science and the methods please read: Scientific Method in Practice,The Structure of Science: Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation (2nd edition), "The Structure of Scientific Theories".

I find it interesting that Francis Bacon wrote in some other works:

"Thirdly, in physics likewise I maintain this - that a little natural philosophy and the first entrance into it inclines men's opinions to Atheism; but on the other hand much natural philosophy and a deeper progress into it brings men's minds about again to religion. So that Atheism appears to be convicted on all sides of folly and ignorance: and it is truly the saying of fools, that there is no God."

In his his time, natural philosophy = science. This was probably one of his reasons for promoting science to the masses - to broaden views. Since he was in the forefront of the scientific revolution, it is interesting to note that in the New Organon, he saw Printing, Gunpowder and the Compass as the inventions that would lead to unstoppable and rapid change in the world - including what we call the Scientific Revolution:

"Again, it is well to observe the force and virtue and consequences of discoveries, and these are to be seen nowhere more conspicuously than in those three which were unknown to the ancients, and of which the origin, though recent, is obscure and inglorious; namely, printing, gunpowder, and the magnet. For these three have changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world; the first in literature, the second in warfare, the third in navigation; whence have followed innumerable changes, insomuch that no empire, no sect, no star seems to have exerted greater power and influence in human affairs than these mechanical discoveries.

Further, it will not be amiss to distinguish the three kinds and, as it were, grades of ambition in mankind. The first is of those who desire to extend their own power in their native country, a vulgar and degenerate kind. The second is of those who labor to extend the power and dominion of their country among men. This certainly has more dignity, though not less covetousness. But if a man endeavor to establish and extend the power and dominion of the human race itself over the universe, his ambition (if ambition it can be called) is without doubt both a more wholesome and a more noble thing than the other two. Now the empire of man over things depends wholly on the arts and sciences. For we cannot command nature except by obeying her.

Again, if men have thought so much of some one particular discovery as to regard him as more than man who has been able by some benefit to make the whole human race his debtor, how much higher a thing to discover that by means of which all things else shall be discovered with ease! And yet (to speak the whole truth), as the uses of light are infinite in enabling us to walk, to ply our arts, to read, to recognize one another -- and nevertheless the very beholding of the light is itself a more excellent and a fairer thing than all the uses of it -- so assuredly the very contemplation of things as they are, without superstition or imposture, error or confusion, is in itself more worthy than all the fruit of inventions.

Lastly, if the debasement of arts and sciences to purposes of wickedness, luxury, and the like, be made a ground of objection, let no one be moved thereby. For the same may be said of all earthly goods: of wit, courage, strength, beauty, wealth, light itself, and the rest. Only let the human race recover that right over nature which belongs to it by divine bequest, and let power be given it; the exercise thereof will be governed by sound reason and true religion." (Book 1, CXXIX)
Fecage
If you could give only one work in philosophy to someone in search of answers, this would be a very good candidate.
I have studied philosophy for 50 years, and most of it is a tragic waste of energy. It always has been, because philosophers, too often, worry more about words than they do in answering the single most important question-- What the heck is going on, anyway.
The New Organon and Related Writings (Library of Liberal Arts, no. 97) download epub
Humanities
Author: Francis Bacon,Fulton H. Anderson
ISBN: 0023033800
Category: Other
Subcategory: Humanities
Language: English
Publisher: Prentice Hall (January 11, 1960)
Pages: 336 pages