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Great Experiments in Physics: Firsthand Accounts from Galileo to Einstein download epub

by Morris H. Shamos


Epub Book: 1596 kb. | Fb2 Book: 1363 kb.

From Galileo's famous experiments in accelerated motion to Einstein's revolutionary theory of relativity, the experiments .

From Galileo's famous experiments in accelerated motion to Einstein's revolutionary theory of relativity, the experiments recorded here trace the evolution of modern physics from its beginnings to the mid-20th century. Brought together for the first time in one volume are important source readings on 25 epochal discoveries that changed man's understanding of the physical world.

Teaching the Conceptual History of Physics to Physics Teachers. Peter Garik, Luciana Garbayo, +4 authors Manher Jariwala.

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Read unlimited books and audiobooks on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android. Moreover, the first 19 experiments can be readily re-created by students in a first-year physics course, making the book ideal for classroom and laboratory work as well as individual reference and study.

Personal Name: Shamos, Morris H. (Morris Herbert), 1917 . On this site it is impossible to download the book, read the book online or get the contents of a book. (Morris Herbert), 1917-. Rubrics: Physics History. The administration of the site is not responsible for the content of the site. The data of catalog based on open source database. All rights are reserved by their owners.

From Galileos famous experiments in accelerated motion to Einsteins revolutionary theory of relativity, the experiments recorded here trace the evolution of modern physics from its beginnings to the mid-twentieth century.

Some of the selections are not really experiments at all, . the usual excerpts from Galileo and Newton on mechanics and most of the 80-page appendices (Maxwell, Einstein, Bohr, et. Others are more measurements than "great experiments", . Boyle, Coulomb, Cavendish. Isolated but interesting selections are Young and Fresnel on light (no Newton here), Röntgen on x-rays, Becquerel on radioactivity.

Starting with Galileo's experiments with motion, this study of 25 crucial discoveries includes Newton's laws of motion, Chadwick's study of the neutron, Hertz on electromagnetic waves, and more. Includes Isaac Newton's "The Laws of Motion," Henry Cavendish's "The Law of Gravitation," Heinrich Hertz's "Electromagnetic Waves," Niels Bohr's "The Hydrogen Atom," and more.

Great Experiments in Physics book. From Galileo's famous experiments in accelerated motion to Einstein's revolutionary theory of relativity, the experiments recorded here trace the evolution of modern physics from its beginnings to the mid-twentieth century.

From Galileo's famous experiments in accelerated motion to Einstein's revolutionary theory of relativity, the experiments recorded here trace the evolution of modern physics from its beginnings to the mid-twentieth century. Brought together for the first time in one volume are important source readings on 25 epochal discoveries that changed man's understanding of the physical world. The accounts, written by the physicists who made them, include:Isaac Newton: The Laws of MotionHenry Cavendish: The Law of GravitationAugustin Fresnel: The Diffraction of LightHans Christian Oersted: ElecromagnetismHeinrich Hertz: ElectromagneticJames Chadwick: The NeutronNiels Bohr: The Hydrogen Atom, and 17 more.Morris H. Shamos, Professor Emeritus of Physics at New York University, has selected and edited the first published accounts of these important experiments and has also added numerous marginal notes that amplify and clarify the original documents. Moreover, the first 19 experiments can be readily re-created by students in a first-year physics course, making the book ideal for classroom and laboratory work as well as individual reference and study.Finally, Dr. Shamos has provided revealing biographical sketches of the scientists and illuminating references to the political and cultural milieu in which the discoveries are made. The result is a superbly readable presentation — accessible to lay readers — of the crucial theoretical and empirical breakthroughs that altered the course of modern science.


Comments: (7)

Vuzahn
I've bought several copies of the oop book and the corresponding Great Experiments in Biology book (also from Dover) for my own students and colleagues. They're a great way to introduce high school students to primary science literature.
Purestone
The book includes some 20 important experiments like the gravitation by Galileo, Newton, Cavendish; the nature of light by Young, Fresnel (but not Newton!); electromagnetism by Oersted, Faraday, Lenz, Hertz; discovery of atom and electron structures like Thomson, Millikan, Rutherford, Chadwick; thermodynamics by Joule. But it is far from complete: it doesn't contain the second law of thermodynamics, the Michelson-Morray experiments and many others.
Juce
I really just wanted to share the fact that one of the original, if not, the original sales receipt was inside the book. For me, it just adds to the beauty. This is a great book with great information. I cannot speak ill of an effective learning tool. If you're interested in physics, you're better off reading this than not reading it. That's a bit of an over simplification, but hopefully my point comes through.
Bradeya
Ok, so, this is a good book. If you are interested in the history of science or just physics, and you want to break into primary sources but feel a little overwhelmed, then I recommend going ahead and buying this book, because it's cheap, and flipping to the first chapter that catches your eye. You will probably like what you see: English translation of texts by Galileo, Boyle, Cavendish, etc., which are short excerpts of the "good part". In the margins, there are commentaries to help you out with archaic language and "weirder" aspects. Now you're cooking! You can go on to other reading if you want.
Xellerlu
Bought it for class- fine book
Faehn
Good source book with historical introduction by Shamos to the experiments. I had the older first edition out from the library, but this later edition is just as good and easier to find.
Delari
This is a haphazard sourcebook with mediocre, short introductions to each paper that are almost entirely biographical. Some of the selections are not really experiments at all, e.g. the usual excerpts from Galileo and Newton on mechanics and most of the 80-page appendices (Maxwell, Einstein, Bohr, etc.). Others are more measurements than "great experiments", e.g. Boyle, Coulomb, Cavendish. Isolated but interesting selections are Young and Fresnel on light (no Newton here), Röntgen on x-rays, Becquerel on radioactivity. The only reasonably coherent thread that one can follow through the book is electromagnetism. I shall summarise the main points briefly.

Coulomb (1785) discovered his "fundamental law by which electrified bodies repel each other", namely that the repulsive force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, as is the attractive force between opposite charges. But this is the same law as for magnets. Thus "The magnetic fluid seems to have, if not by its nature, at least by its properties an analogy with the electric fluid. Based on this analogy it can be assumed that the two fluid obey the same laws. In all other phenomena of attractions or repulsion that nature presents to us, for instance elasticity and chemical affinity, the forces seem to be exerted only at very small distances, and it seems, therefore, that they are nothing but the same laws of electricity and magnetism."

The link between electricity and magnetism was further strengthened when Oersted (1820) discovered that a current can influence a magnetic needle. Apparently the current generates some sort of "electric conflict" which "is not enclosed in the conductor, but ... is at the same time dispersed in the surrounding space, and that somewhat widely". "All nonmagnetic bodies seem seem to be penetrable through electric conflict; but magnetic bodies, or rather their magnetic particles, seem to resist the passage of this conflict, whence it is that they can be moved by the impulse of contending forces."

Faraday (1832) discovered further that currents can induce currents (albeit weak ones: "I could obtain no evidence by the tongue") and that magnets can induce currents. As for the nature of this electromagnetic business, Faraday (1834) made some discoveries on electrolysis. Water can be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by sticking two metal plates in it and connecting them with a current, and Faraday discovered that "when subjected to the influence of the electric current, a quantity of it is decomposed exactly proportionate to the quantity of electricity which has passed" and thus "it seems probable, and almost a natural consequence, that the quantity which passes is the equivalent of, and therefore equal to, that of the particles separated; i.e., that if the electrical power which ... makes a grain of oxygen and hydrogen in the right proportions unite into water ... could be thrown into the condition of a current, it would exactly equal the current required for the separation of that grain of water into its elements again." So electricity seems to be of a material nature.

Other experiments (and the theory of Maxwell (1865)), however, makes electricity seem like a wave phenomena, as represented here by Hertz (1888): "the action of an electric oscillation spreads out as a wave into space" so "I planned experiments with the object of concentrating this action ... by putting the primary conductor in the focal line of a large concave parabolic mirror" and indeed "I have succeeded in producing distinct rays of electric force, and in carrying out with them the elementary experiments which are commonly performed with light and radiant heat". If such rays were material it ought to be possible to deflect them by magnetic fields, which could at first not be effected.

Then Thomson (1897) finally managed to set up an experiment where "cathode rays [that] carry a charge of negative electricity, are deflected by an electrostatic force as if they were negatively electrified, and are acted on by a magnetic force in just the way in which the force would act on a negatively electrified body moving along the path of these rays." Consequently, "I can see no escape from the conclusion that they are charges of negative electricity carried by particles of matter. The question next arises, what are these particles? are they atoms, or molecules, or matter in a still finer state of subdivision? To throw some light on this point, I have made a series of measurements of the ratio of the mass of these particles to the charges carried by it." Basically, one measures the total amount of electricity in the ray by putting a sensor at the end of it, and the total kinetic energy by having the ray bump into an obstacle and measuring the increase in temperature; knowing the magnetic field, one can figure out the ratio mass/charge from these values. We find that this ratio is about 10^-7 which is "very small compared with the value 10^-4, which is the smallest value of this quantity previously known, and which is the value for the hydrogen ion in electrolysis."
Great Experiments in Physics: Firsthand Accounts from Galileo to Einstein download epub
Experiments Instruments & Measurement
Author: Morris H. Shamos
ISBN: 0486253465
Category: Science & Math
Subcategory: Experiments Instruments & Measurement
Language: English
Publisher: Dover Publications; Second Edition edition (May 1, 1987)
Pages: 384 pages